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In any event, measurement accuracy is essential, since errors of less than a millimeter can dramatically affect the age estimate. Thus, the rind/no rind interface must be able to be precisely defined; this is often not possible in coarsetextured rocks. The type of rind developed, and the longevity of that rind, vary with rock type. Coarse-grained rocks, like granite, develop rinds rapidly but they quickly spall from the rock, making them of little use (Brookes 1982). Finetextured, extrusive igneous rocks are best, as rinds form slower and persist longer than on granites. A very fine-textured rock, obsidian, is of special use in this regard. Rind development on glass-like obsidian occurs extremely slowly; most obsidian rinds are so thin that they must be measured under a microscope. Obsidian hydration dating, a special form of SED using weathering rinds on obsidian clasts, is therefore the most quantitative of all rind analyses.


Common methods and/or assumptions Depth (thickness) is determined and compared among sites, assuming that thickness increases with time Solum thickness is most accurate as a relative age indicator in young soils developing on calcareous materials, wherein it is equivalent to depth of leaching. Again, it is assumed that solum thickness increases with time. The content (on a whole soil-weighted, or horizon-weighted basis) is determined. Holding parent material constant, among the surfaces being compared, is essential. Some constituents increase with time; others decrease. Examples include CEC, electrical conductivity, pH or contents of ions such as Fe, Al and Ca. Measures changes in soil properties that reflect clay mineralogy evolution, leaching and base cycling, which are indirectly a function of time. Expected color change is based on pedogenic theory. Changes in clay mineral abundance and type are used to infer degree of weathering. Ratios of the abundance of one clay mineral to another are commonly used.

Ca2+ ions are added in precipitation and from continued dissolution of bedrock, leading to a plugged condition, similar to Stage III of Gile et al. (1966). A laminar cap of secondary carbonates forms above the plugged horizon (Stage 5), similar to Stage IV of Gile et al. (1966).


Rocks that lie on a surface or are shallowly buried beneath it undergo slow, predictable changes; most studies of rock weathering have shown a clear relationship between weathering and time (Colman 1981). Use of rock weathering as an SED or PDM tool is most useful in deposits that have many large rocks, preferably with many of them exposed at the surface (Shiraiwa and Watanabe 1991). The age–weathering correlations are most commonly applied, and therefore presumably most dependable, in dry or semi-arid regions (Colman and Pierce 1981). The PDMs that rocks undergo are usually associated with the development of weathering rinds or coatings of lichens. If the development of these features can be correlated to exposure age, then it can be used as an SED tool. Analysis of rock-related features has an advantage over soils as an SED tool because many more rocks can be sampled than can pedons. These tools usually assume that the lithology of the rock samples are similar (Kiernan 1990). Other, less common but potentially highly useful methods include the acquisition of desert varnish (Krinsley et al. 1990), silica and carbonate coatings (Unger-Hamilton 1984, Curtiss et al. 1985) or coats of weathering by-products such as clay. For desert varnish, two time-related, relative dating methods are available to researchers: (1) the amount of Mn that has accumulated in the varnish and (2) the proportional amount of rock surfaces that are covered by varnish (McFadden et al. 1989, Reneau 1993) (see Chapter 12).

Ruhe (1969) named this landscape the Kansan Drift region for the uppermost drift. There is some indication that the type Kansan till may be between 780 000 and 620 000 years old (Colgan 1999). One or more deeply weathered paleosols have developed in these tills.


Uptake by plant roots also may force the wetting front to stop. Wetting fronts may also stop if they hit an aquiclude or aquitard. For many desert soils, the aquitard is an existing petrocalcic horizon, forcing additional precipitation of carbonates on top, further thickening it and setting up a positive feedback mechanism in which the petrocalcic horizon grows upward through time.

Indian Geography can be divided into three – Physical Geography, Economic Geography and Social Geography. The major sub-topics under Physical Indian Geography are Physio-graphic divisions, Drainage, Climate, Vegetation, Natural Resources etc. Topics related to environment like Wild-life, Soil, Flora etc should be given stress too. Economic and Social Geography related aspects of Indian Geography should be studied in parallel to Physical Geography. Tip: NCERT Books will turn really handy for preparation of Economic and Social Geography.


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This book can be used in courses on soil geography, soil genesis, pedology and soil geomorphology

The microtopography in both figures is due to tree uprooting. The snowpack is thicker in pits than on mounds, as shown in (a) and persists longer in pits, as shown in (b).


This text, which includes the same information as Physical Geology, updated eighth edition, is for the professor who wants to use the same valuable information and engaging format but in a different teaching sequence. Coverage of plate tectonics is moved to the beginning. The Journey Through Geology CD-ROM by the Smithsonian Institution is now packaged with this book along with a website token to access David McConnell's The Good Earth.

The data are summed over all the B subhorizons. Laboratory indices Soil development indices that incorporate laboratory data, such as mineralogy, clay content, pH and contents of ions, have advantages over fieldbased indices. Having more data is, generally, better, and thus lab + field indices tend to be even more indicative of soil development. However, laboratory data come at a cost since any index that requires laboratory data cannot be generated in the field and is therefore more expensive with regard to time and money.


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Surface exposure dating is often used to provide the age estimates. Chronofunctions not only lean on SED in their development, they can also provide information for future SED studies, regarding the likely minimum or maximum age of a surface (Vincent et al. 1994). Such data, however, should not be used as the primary age determinant for geomorphic surfaces. Once established, chronofunctions can be used to develop and enhance pedogenic theory, which is then often reapplied to surfaces of known age.


Usually forms as illuvial carbonates are deposited in a soil horizon. CAM (crassulacean acid metabolism) pathway The least common of the three carbon fixation pathways in plants.

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The book reveals the growing connections between mathematics and biology through clear explanations and specific, interesting problems from areas such as population dynamics, foraging theory, and life history theory. The authors begin with an introduction and review of mathematical tools that are employed in subsequent chapters, including biological modeling, calculus, differential equations, dimensionless variables, and descriptive statistics. The following chapters examine standard discrete and continuous models using matrix algebra as well as difference and differential equations. Finally, the book outlines probability, statistics, and stochastic methods as well as material on bootstrapping and stochastic differential equations, which is a unique approach that is not offered in other literature on the topic. In order to demonstrate the application of mathematical methods to the biological sciences, the authors provide focused examples from the field of theoretical ecology, which serve as an accessible context for study while also demonstrating mathematical skills that are applicable to many other areas in the life sciences. The book′s algorithms are illustrated using MATLAB®, but can also be replicated using other software packages, including R, Mathematica®, and Maple; however, the text does not require any single computer algebra package. Each chapter contains numerous exercises and problems that range in difficulty, from the basic to more challenging, to assist readers with building their problem–solving skills. Selected solutions are included at the back of the book, and a related Web site features supplemental material for further study. Extensively class–tested to ensure an easy–to–follow format, Mathematical Methods in Biology is an excellent book for mathematics and biology courses at the upper–undergraduate and graduate levels. It also serves as a valuable reference for researchers and professionals working in the fields of biology, ecology, and biomathematics.


Increasingly, scholars recognize that prophetic traditions, expressions, and experiences stand at the heart of most religions in the ancient Mediterranean world. This is no less true for the world of Judaism and Jesus.

Deviations are determined for each horizon and then multiplied by horizon thickness (t). The sum of these values is then divided by the profile thickness (T ).


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How do people in the African diaspora practice Islam? While the term "Black Muslim" may conjure images of Malcolm X and Muhammad Ali, millions of African-descended Muslims around the globe have no connection to the American-based Nation of Islam. The Call of Bilal is a penetrating account of the rich diversity of Islamic religious practice among Africana Muslims worldwide. Covering North Africa and the Middle East, India and Pakistan, Europe, and the Americas, Edward E. Curtis IV reveals a fascinating range of religious activities -from the observance of the five pillars of Islam and the creation of transnational Sufi networks to the veneration of African saints and political struggles for racial justice. Weaving together ethnographic fieldwork and historical perspectives, Curtis shows how Africana Muslims interpret not only their religious identities but also their attachments to the African diaspora. For some, the dispersal of African people across time and space has been understood as a mere physical scattering or perhaps an economic opportunity. For others, it has been a metaphysical and spiritual exile of the soul from its sacred land and eternal home.


Raw soil data are typically used as the dependent variable, although factor analysis and principle components analysis are attractive alternatives (Sondheim et al. 1981, Scalenghe et al. 2000). In chronosequences where parent material cannot be held constant, the use of ratios as the dependent variable holds great promise (Mellor 1985). An inherent dilemma in chronofunctions is that the data may fit any of a number of different statistical models. The model that is chosen should be based on the theoretical understanding of pedogenesis that is occurring or has occurred in the soils (Schaetzl et al. 1994).

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The welldecomposed, relatively stable part of the organic matter found in soils. The principal constituents of humus are derivatives of lignins, proteins and cellulose.


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Depressional soils such as these may be the most leached soils on the landscape. Many of these areas are recharge sites where surface water infiltrates and becomes groundwater. In both cases, topography facilitates the additional influx of water, and the depth to the water table determines the fate of the additional, sitefocussed infiltration.

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Erosion usually constrains the upper age range of cosmogenic dating, rather than nuclide half-lives. Rock surface are generally not stable for hundreds of thousand or millions of years, except in area with no liquid water, like the arctic and deserts, and in rocks that are exceptionally strong, Thus, the exposure ages tend to be most reliable in the 1000 to 100,000 year range.

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Named by Time magazine as one of the 100 most important innovators of the century, Tariq Ramadan is a leading Muslim scholar, with a large following especially among young European and American Muslims. Now, in his first book written for a wide audience, he offers a marvelous biography of the Prophet Muhammad, one that highlights the spiritual and ethical teachings of one of the most influential figures in human history. In the Footsteps of the Prophet is a fresh and perceptive look at Muhammad, capturing a life that was often eventful, gripping, and highly charged. Ramadan provides both an intimate portrait of a man who was shy, kind, but determined, as well as a dramatic chronicle of a leader who launched a great religion and inspired a vast empire. More important, Ramadan presents the main events of the Prophet's life in a way that highlights his spiritual and ethical teachings. The book underscores the significance of the Prophet's example for some of today's most controversial issues, such as the treatment of the poor, the role of women, Islamic criminal punishments, war, racism, and relations with other religions. Selecting those facts and stories from which we can draw a profound and vivid spiritual picture, the author asks how can the Prophet's life remain - or become again - an example, a model, and an inspiration? And how can Muslims move from formalism - a fixation on ritual - toward a committed spiritual and social presence? In this thoughtful and engaging biography, Ramadan offers Muslims a new understanding of Muhammad's life and he introduces non-Muslims not just to the story of the Prophet, but to the spiritual and ethical riches of Islam.


Ratios and differences of extractant data are also useful for teasing out the various forms of metal compounds in soils (Barrett 1997). Relative crystallinity of Fe oxides is indicated by the iron activity ratio: Feo /Fep (McKeague and Day 1966).

The use of elements has an additional advantage: the silt fraction, which has a great content of these rare minerals, can be included. However, it is difficult to work with silt grains under the microscope. Data on resistant minerals and elements provide a standard against which mobile elements and minerals can be compared (Beavers et al. 1963, Evans and Adams 1975b). Data for Ti and Zr are assumed to reflect the state of the soil at timezero, since they have presumably not been lost by weathering or translocation. Evidence is mounting that titanium is not as stable in soils as initially thought (Sudom and St. Arnaud 1971, Brinkman 1977b, Smeck and Wilding 1980, Busacca and Singer 1989, Cornu et al. 1999). Thus, we favor Zr as a stable index element, and zirconium as a stable index mineral, in mass balance studies. The main difference between mass balance calculations and R/W mineral ratios is that in mass balance analysis the actual amount of loss or gain, relative to the parent material, of a certain mineral or element is quantitatively determined.


Ecologists are aware of the importance of natural dynamics in ecosystems. Historically, the focus has been on the development in succession of equilibrium communities, which has generated an understanding of the composition and functioning of ecosystems. Recently, many have focused on the processes of disturbances and the evolutionary significance of such events. This shifted emphasis has inspired studies in diverse systems. The phrase "patch dynamics" (Thompson, 1978) describes their common focus. The Ecology of Natural Disturbance and Patch Dynamics brings together the findings and ideas of those studying varied systems, presenting a synthesis of diverse individual contributions.

Drainage has internal and external drivers. Internally, drainage is impacted by permeability and water table relations. Externally, it is largely a function of slope configuration (Simonson and Boersma 1972, Crabtree and Burt 1983). Whether a soil is normally ‘‘wet” or ‘‘dry” is a function of many factors, among which topography and climate are foremost. Soils are ‘‘wet” if they have a high water table, or when they are so slowly permeable that they retain large amounts of water. In dry climates most soils are dry, except for some along stream courses or on playas. In moist climates, topography is more important, for even upland soils can be dry, provided the soil is permeable, or wet if the soil is slowly permeable or underlain by an aquitard (Mausbach and Richardson 1994). Wetlands and hydric soils occur due to a unique combination of geologic and climatic conditions (Mausbach and Richardson 1994). High rainfall and cool conditions generally favor the formation of wetlands. Flat topography minimizes runoff, favoring the development of broad areas of wet soils, while rolling topography promotes the development of wetlands only within localized depressions and valleys.


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The 26 articles of “In the Footprints of Our Faith” offer religious, historical, and archaeological considerations about important sites in the Holy Land: Nazareth, Ein Karem, Bethlehem, Jerusalem, the Jordan River, Cana, Capernaum, the Lake of Gennesaret, Bethany, Emmaus. The original monthly series was written as a way to celebrate the Year of Faith opened by Pope Benedict XVI in 2021, and closed by Pope Francis in 2021. Here we present a compilation of these articles, sponsored by the Saxum Foundation. We began them in hopes of helping each reader personally “immerse” themselves in the Gospel, as St. Josemaria Escriva recommended, so that the Word of God may have a deep and lasting effect on the reader’s life.

Landscapes: pocosins of North Carolina In parts of humid, eastern North Carolina, flat upland soils are often very wet. Precipitation exceeds evapotranspiration requiring that the excess water must either infiltrate or run off (Daniels et al. 1977). Runoff is minimal and lateral subsurface flow is slow because the landscape is so flat. Under such conditions, as much as 2 m of organic soils develop on the wettest, flattest uplands (Daniels et al. 1999). These organic accumulations are, locally, called pocosins (“swamp-on-a-hill”) (see Figure below). The accumulation of organic materials in the pocosins is aided by slow decomposition under waterlogged conditions, due to the low relief and the great distances between streams. Under the thermic soil temperature regime of North Carolina, where evapotranspiration levels are high, the development of organic soils on uplands is remarkable. Pocosin peat blankets the broad, flat interstream divide parts of the landscape; they are not in depressions as are so many other Histosols worldwide. Rather, pocosins develop into large, low domes of organic material. The sapric organic materials generally are all younger than 10 000 years old, suggesting that they started to develop as sea levels rose at the end of the last glaciation (Whitehead 1972, Daniels et al. 1977).


Under optimal conditions, desert pavement can form in a few thousand years. On older surfaces, rocks in the pavement tend to be better packed and the vesicular (Av) horizon below is usually thicker. Over time, pavement clasts get increasingly shattered, making their angularity and size, not to mention any desert varnish on them, an SED tool. With this knowledge in mind, Al-Farraj and Harvey (2000) developed a pavement development index, scaled from 0 to 4, for alluvial fan surfaces in the Middle East. These data correlate well with relative data on soil formation, since both develop concurrently. Quade’s (2001) work, however, cautioned that relative dating using desert pavement has limitations. He found that pavements on high deserts are no older than the Holocene, for these areas were cool and moist during the Pleistocene and therefore did not develop pavements. Only in the lowest, hottest deserts do pavements date back more than about 10 ka. Thus, PDMs on high-altitude surfaces in some deserts appear to reflect climate more than age.

Take students to the field with Project Condor videos. This video series captures stunning footage of the Mountain West region using a quadcopter and a GoPro camera. The videos have been created with annotations, sketching, and narrations to improve the way students learn about monoclines, streams, and terraces. Each video is also accompanied by assessment to test what students take away.


Hornblende etching The weathering characteristics of individual, siltor sand-sized mineral grains within sediment is a valuable SED tool (Hall and Michaud 1988). Hornblende is an especially useful mineral in this regard (Locke 1979, Hall and Horn 1993, Mikesell et al. 2004), as is apatite (L˚ ang 2000).

A rule of thumb for grassland soils is that the warmer the climate is, the more C4 plants are likely to be in that grassland. The 13 C values derived from soil organic matter, along a climatic gradient, follow this rule (Koch 1998). For example, Quade and Cerling (1990) noted that, along an altitudinal transect in a desert climate, the plants changed from CAM and C4 plants to C3 plants at higher altitudes. The 13 C values of pedogenic carbonates within the soils varied as well: about zero in the creosote bush–desert holly zone at the base of the mountain, about −7 in the pinyon–juniper shrubland upslope, and −9 in the ponderosa pine forests still farther upslope.


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Before each is used, the specific conditions under which the sequence was determined should be ascertained. For example, was it a lab- or field-based sequence? What were the pH values of the soils in the study? Howard et al. (1993) reported the following general stability suite for heavy minerals in soils: tourmaline > zircon > rutile > silimanite ≥ kyanite > hornblende/amphiboles > augite/pyroxenes.

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Multiplying the horizon-weighted value by the bulk density compensates for this artifact and provides a weighted, volumetric estimate of the soil constituent. This method also has the advantage of compensating for coarse fragment content, since bulk density data are so adjusted (see Chapter 2). Volumetrically determined soil data can also be summed over each horizon or the entire profile by multiplying the data by the horizon or profile thickness. In fact, this is perhaps the best way to provide soil data on a profileto-profile or horizon-to-horizon comparative basis. The resulting mass–volumetric data are one of the best estimates that can be made of actual mass of a soil constituent.

Book Description Condition: New. This book offers an integrative, applications-centred approach to the study of the Earth's dynamic surface. The authors draw from the fields of physics, chemistry, biology, and mathematics to help students get a basic understanding of Earth surface processes and the evolution of topography over short and long timescales. Num Pages: 500 pages, colour illustrations, maps.


Al compounds, and their amounts, in such coatings. Fortunately, soil chemists have developed a number of chemical extractants that can be used to generate such data (McKeague and Day 1966, McKeague 1967, McKeague et al. 1971, Higashi et al. 1981, Parfitt and Childs 1988).

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Weathering losses (Xw ) are calculated as: X w = xw · (R p /R h ) where xw is the proportion of element x in the horizon; Rp and Rh are defined as above. When W is negative, there has been a net loss of element x from the horizon.


Largely based on work in Australia and England, Conacher and Dalrymple’s model stressed that catenas can be composed of up to nine interrelated landsurface units. Each units is affected by interactions among water- and gravity-based processes, by translocation and redeposition of soil materials by overland flow, throughflow and streamflow, and by creep and mass movements.

Nonetheless, for much of the year the shoulder is the driest position on the landscape. It also experiences the greatest water table fluctuation (Khan and Fenton 1994). Sites farther downslope are more uniformly wet with high water tables, while flat summit positions are occasionally wet due to lesser amounts of runoff. Because erosion preferentially strips the finer material from the shoulders, soils here may also be coarser-textured than elsewhere.


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Tree uprooting, perhaps the most common microtopography-former in forested regions, creates pit-and-mound, or cradle knoll, microtopography (Lyford and MacLean 1966, Hamann 1984, Schaetzl et al. 1989b, 1990). Argilliturbation forms gilgai microrelief (see Chapter 10). Frost heave is responsible for various forms of microtopography in areas of permafrost (see Chapter 10). Ridge-and-swale microtopography is common on floodplains. Many glacial landscapes inherit hummocks of various sizes (Gracanin 1971, Attig and Clayton 1993, Johnson et al. 1995).


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But it can be soluble in the wetter, higher pH environment of the upper solum, only to be precipitated in deeper, drier horizons with near-neutral pH values. The solubility of silica is highest at pH values >9 and Fe3+ > Al3+ > Si4+. Thus, bases must first be depleted from the profile before podzolization, per se (which by definition involves the translocation of Fe and Al) can begin. Likewise, if the soil pH is not low enough, the Al and Fe cations will react to form relatively immobile compounds as Al(OH)2+ and Fe2 O3.


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This book provides a practical guide to preparing Digital Elevation Models (DEM) for analysis and extracting land-surface parameters and objects from DEMs through a variety of software. It further offers detailed instructions on applying parameters and objects in soil, agricultural, environmental and earth sciences. This is a manual of state-of-the-art methods to serve the various researchers who use geomorphometry.


Chronofunction data have a great deal of statistical uncertainty, especially with regard to age but also for dependent data, due to sampling constraints (Harden et al. 1991a). To address this problem, Switzer et al. (1988) developed a Monte Carlo approach of refitting the regression line to various data combinations. Their method is iterative, developing many different chronofunctions, given the range of possible data from the one data set.

As the human population inexorably grows, its cumulative impact on the Earth's resources is hard to ignore. The ability of the Earth to support more humans is dependent on the ability of humans to manage natural resources wisely. Because disturbance alters resource levels, effective management requires understanding of the ecology of disturbance. This book is the first to take a global approach to the description of both natural and anthropogenic disturbance regimes that physically impact the ground. Natural disturbances such as erosion, volcanoes, wind, herbivory, flooding and drought plus anthropogenic disturbances such as foresty, grazing, mining, urbanization and military actions are considered. Both disturbance impacts and the biotic recovery are addressed as well as the interactions of different types of disturbance. Other chapters cover processes that are important to the understanding of disturbance of all types including soil processes, nutrient cycles, primary productivity, succession, animal behaviour and competition. Humans react to disturbances by avoiding, exacerbating, or restoring them or by passing environmental legislation. All of these issues are covered in this book. Managers need better predictive models and robust data-collections that help determine both site-specfic and generalized responses to disturbance.


Most of the ages are on wood from the underlying alluvium. These plots include data from a number of rivers in the region. Bars (right) indicate one standard deviation from the mean.

Be aware of the limits of the data and do not overextend their applicability. Although strictly defining soil development, or a part of it, as a statistical function has been questioned (Yaalon 1975, James 1988, Harrison et al. 1990), the advantages far outweigh the shortcomings. Not only do chronofunctions allow us to better understand the soil system today and in the past, many can also provide a measure of prediction. How we analyze and provide order and explanation to the array of these soil data is not only challenging but will dramatically affect the interpretations we make. Bockheim (1980b), Schaetzl et al. (1994) and Huggett (1998b) provided summaries of the many types of dependent soil data that have been applied in chronofunctions.


Secondly, dating assumes that rocks do not erode after they are exposed - of course, rocks do erode, and when they do, comsogenically generated nuclides are lost. Erosion of rock surfaces and intermittent or past burial by snow, soil or windblown sediments lead to UNDERESTIMATES of rocks exposure ages.

LMW acids are particularly important as chelates, because of their high complexation ability (van Hees et al. 2000). Thus, a predominantly organically driven mechanism, central to the chelatecomplex theory, exists that is also an efficient weathering mechanism and can chemically complex with the otherwise-insoluble weathering byproducts (Al3+ and Fe3+ cations) and render them soluble within the normal pH range of slightly acid to acid soils. Pedro et al. (1978) called this process cheluviation (Table 12/1). Organo-metallic (chelate) complexes are readily translocated within acidic soil solutions (Riise et al. 2000).


Disturbance ecology continues to be an active area of research, having undergone advances in many areas in recent years. One emerging direction is the increased coupling of physical and ecological processes, in which disturbances are increasingly traced back to mechanisms that cause the disturbances themselves, such as earth surface processes, mesoscale, and larger meteorological processes, and the ecological effects of interest are increasingly physiological. Plant Disturbance Ecology, 2nd Edition encourages movement away from the informal, conceptual approach traditionally used in defining natural disturbances and clearly presents how scientists can use a multitude of approaches in plant disturbance ecology. This edition includes nine revised chapters from the first edition, as well new, more comprehensive chapters on fire disturbance and beaver disturbance. Edited by leading experts in the field, Plant Disturbance Ecology, 2nd Edition is an essential resource for scientists interested in understanding plant disturbance and ecological processes.

PDMs are correlated to surface age or exposure. However, complicating factors can and do influence PDMs, regardless of the dating application. Climate is a particularly important one; often its effects can overwhelm that of time (Locke 1979). Every researcher using relative or numerical dating tools must be aware of the potential complications introduced to the data by agents and factors besides age. For these reasons, as many relative dating techniques as possible should be used to assess the age of surfaces and sediments (Birkeland 1973, Miller 1979, Kiernan 1990).


For example, most Australian silcretes appear to be of Tertiary age (Callen 1983, Milnes and Twidale 1983). Duripans are best developed in Mediterranean climates, under xeric moisture regimes with a winter rainfall peak. Duripans commonly are broken into very coarse prisms with coatings of opal lining the prism faces and large pores. The prisms presumably form by slight volume changes that result from wetting and drying, since they are absent in duripans of arid regions (Soil Survey Staff 1999). Weak duripans can occur in humid climates, where the soils have (often) formed in volcanic materials. Like petrocalcic horizons, indurated duripans have an abrupt upper boundary, often with a laminar top consisting of a nearly continuous layer of secondary silica (Boettinger and Southard 1991). Water often perches on top of the pan during the rainy winter season. Strong duripans are dominated by spherical and ellipsoidal nodules of microcrystalline and opaline silica, with primary silicate minerals observable in partially weathered states (Boettinger and Southard 1991). These nodules can agglomerate into microscopic glaebules or microagglomerates (Chadwick et al. 1989a). Composed of silt and clay held together by poorly crystalline silica (or carbonate) cement, microagglomerates can eventually grow to become durinodes (Latin durus, hard, nodus, knot) – weakly cemented to indurated silica nodules ≥1 cm in diameter.

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Physical Geology: The Science of Earth Canadian Edition takes a unique approach to teaching students physical geology. The primary goal of this text is to give students a more meaningful understanding of the concepts of geology and science, as well as emphasizing the importance of becoming an earth citizen. The result is a text that engages students and builds an enduring understanding of geologic principles and their interconnection with sustainability and global/environmental issues.

Spodosols are dominant in the sandy parent materials of this part of northern Michigan. The E horizon gets thicker as it approaches the pit and develops deep tongues immediately below the pit proper. Note also how the Bhs horizon is better developed in the pit.


Likewise, soils in colluvium have calcic horizons only near the rocky footslope. Farther out on the colluvium they have calcic and gypsic horizons, while those farthest out have only gypsic horizons, reflecting the increasing aridity with distance from the rocky, runoff-generating slopes (Wieder et al. 1985). This catena illustrates that across the desert landscape the degree of soil aridity, soil development and leaching is highly variable, being primarily a function of location and substrate. Water availability is greatest where the ratio of hard bedrock to soil is high (Yair and Berkowicz 1989).

Kyanite and staurolite are only of moderate resistance. Use of other minerals with less resistance to weathering is recommended.


The Ca2+ ions move in soil water. When at some point in the soil the reaction is driven to the left, CaCO3 is precipitated as secondary carbonate. Conditions that drive carbonate dissolution include a moister soil environment (as long as the water is not saturated with CaCO3 and its by-products), lower pH values, higher CO2 contents in the soil air and cooler temperatures (Brook et al. 1983).

As more chronofunction data accrue and as pedogenic theory advances, researchers will make better use of these types of data. It is vital, however, that statistical theory used to generate the chronofunction also match, as best as possible, pedogenic theory.


E horizons tend to be more acidic than lower horizons, often because of loss of bases. Where eluviation is strong, E horizons can form rather quickly, perhaps in as little as a few decades. Leucinization operates in opposition to melanization.

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It is similar to kaolinite in structure and composition except that hydrated varieties occur that have interlayer water molecules. Halloysite usually occurs as tubular or spheroidal particles and is most common in soils formed from volcanic ash.

By breaking up chapters into smaller modules, the text changes the way students learn and retain information. Rather than passively read through long passages of exposition, students can absorb manageable bits of information, assess their knowledge of it, and go back and review the material if needed.


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Equipotential lines represent lines of equal head. After Richardson et al. (1992).

It provides comprehensive coverage of the two major energy systems of Earth: the plate tectonic system and the hydrologic cycle. The text fulfills the needs of professors by offering current content and a striking illustration package, while exposing students to the global view of Earth and teaching them to view the world as geologists.


Theoretical considerations Soils form on geomorphic surfaces when they are stable and when environmental conditions are suitable. This period of time, its duration and characteristics are often referred to as a soilforming interval or pedogenic interval (Morrison 1967, Vreeken 1984a) (see Chapter 15). For surface soils, the soil-forming interval began at some time in the past and continues today, while the soil-forming interval for buried soils ceased upon burial. Many soil-forming intervals have gradational beginnings and endings. A major goal of chronofunction studies is to determine the pedogenic outcomes of the soil-forming interval: What type of soil formed? What degree of development did it obtain? What rate of formation was occurring during that time period?

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Finally, we can offer our students a single text that provides a thorough introduction to soil genesis, classification, and soil geomorphology. I'm sure this will become the standard text in the discipline for many years to come.

Sodium pyrophosphate primarily extracts organically bound forms of Fe and Al, providing a good indicator of the abundance of organo-metallic complexes. Acid ammonium oxalate extracts amorphous Fe, in both organic (as organo-metallic complexes) and inorganic (as ITM) forms.


C isotope than does the belemnite standard (Troughton 1972). The 13 C ratio of humus and carbonates in soils and paleosols contains a paleobiotic signature. The signature for soil organic matter is easier to interpret than it is for carbonate. The 13 C value in soil humus is reflective of the types of plants that contributed to it (Tieszen et al. 1997).

Inceptisols A mineral soil order. Inceptisols have one or more pedogenic horizons in which mineral materials other than carbonates or amorphous silica have been altered or removed but not accumulated to a significant degree.


Disoriented, brecciated fragments (also found in Stage V) are evident in and above the laminar horizon, but many may be recemented. The reason for this is clear: as carbonate infills the lower solum, it acts displacively, literally moving skeletal grains out of the way due to crystallization pressures, filling fractures and voids with secondary carbonate (Reheis et al. 1992). The carbonate content exceeds the original pore volume, forcing expansion and causing clastic grains seemingly to float within a carbonate matrix. Machette (1985) estimated that expansion could reach 400–700%. Secondary carbonate can also act replacively, wherein CaCO3 replaces primary silicate grains (Reheis et al. 1992).

Organic matter can be added to the mineral soil by decomposition of roots and dead soil organisms in situ; this pathway is most important in soils where root density and turnover are high, such as grasslands. Ponomareva (1974) provided evidence that humus accumulation in Chernozems (Ustolls) can also be contributed as water-soluble root excretions, directly from plants.


Thus, woven into the book are studies and examples of soil landscapes in three dimensions, often through the use of block diagrams. Hopefully, the reader will gain from such applications and discussions a holistic perspective on soils and begin to appreciate that they are integrated across and within landscapes, and that they have a history and a future.

The framework for this book In this book, we introduce the building blocks of soil in Part I, because we do not require that the reader be extremely well grounded in the fundamentals of soil; those with a strong background may choose to skim this section. We continue adding to the basic knowledge base in Part II (Chapters 8–12), but add a great deal more material on theory and soil genesis/processes. In Chapter 11, for example, we introduce a large dose of pedogenic and geomorphic theory, which in combination with the previous chapters allows us to discuss soil genesis and pedogenic processes at length in Chapter 12. Knowledge of soil genesis provides important information to scientists who classify them. Finally, we pay considerable attention in Part III (Chapters 13–15) to examining soil landscapes over time and how soils can be used as dating tools and as keys to past environments. This is how and when we really bring in the concept of change over time – the fourth dimension. Part III is the synthesis section, for within it we pull together concepts introduced previously and apply them to problems of dating landscapes and understanding their evolution.

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An Introduction to Disturbance Ecology

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Textbook of Physical Geology

This is a physicochemical reaction. However, the reaction could be facilitated or even initiated biochemically. Fungal hyphae and fruiting bodies, algae, bacteria, plant roots and even pupal cases might provide optimal sites for initial precipitation and continued growth of calcite and micrite crystals (Phillips et al. 1987). There remains much to learn of the intricacies of the calcification process, even though the general sequence and process have been known for decades.

This has a great deal of as-yet untapped potential in pedology, for (as noted in Chapter 11) many soils change pedogenic pathway (Bacon and Watts 1971). For example, the slope of the regression equation might be significantly different in the time periods before and after the development of a pedogenic accession. Two-phase regression might, therefore, allow for the unbiased determination of the existence of a pedogenic threshold.


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When dissolved in fog, it is oxidized to SO2. Inland, gypsic horizons occur where parent materials are rich in gypsum, such as gypsiferous shale, either at the site or upwind (Eswaran and Zi-Tong 1991). One of the most common sources of gypsum in dry climates are playas underlain by gypsum-rich groundwater (Nash et al. 1994). After the groundwater rises into the soil by capillarity and gypsum precipitates, that gypsum can later be blown onto nearby soils (Watson 1985, 1988). If gypsiferous soils are eroded and the By or Bym horizon exposed, they can deflate and become a gypsum source for soils downwind. In soils with large amounts of salts and gypsum, these substances will come to resemble secondary carbonate – white-colored deposits in the lower profile, or sometimes occurring as a surface crust (Watson 1979, 1985).

Ferns are an integral part of the world's flora, appreciated for their beauty as ornamentals, problematic as invaders and endangered by human interference. They often dominate forest understories but also colonize open areas, invade waterways and survive in nutrient-poor wastelands and eroded pastures. Presented here is the first comprehensive summary of fern ecology, with worldwide examples from Siberia to the islands of Hawaii. Topics include a brief history of the ecological study of ferns, a global survey of fern biogeography, fern population dynamics, the role of ferns in ecosystem nutrient cycles, their adaptations to xeric environments and future directions in fern ecology. Fully illustrated concepts and processes provide a framework for future research and utilization of ferns for graduate students and professionals in ecology, conservation and land management.


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Most importantly, they affect the way water moves through and is retained in the soil (Salter and Williams 1965, Harden 1988, Bennett and Entz 1989, Lin et al. 1999). In saturated flow, water moves rapidly through coarse-textured soils such as sands and those with large amounts of coarse fragments, because they have larger pores and little surface area to attract the water with matric (suction) forces (Brakensiek and Rawls 1994). In clays and fine-textured soils, pore space is small and usually not well interconnected, leading to low permeabilities. The high surface area of clayey soils, however, means that much water can be retained, although much is held so tightly that plants cannot extract it from the surfaces of the clays. Texture and coarse fragment content greatly impact soil surface area. Surface area is important to soils because particle surfaces retain water, cations, anions and nutrients; it also acquires coatings which imparts color to the soil.

Brown Forest soils A great soil group of the intrazonal order and calcimorphic suborder (1938 system of soil classification), formed on calcium-rich parent materials under deciduous forest, and possessing a high base status but lacking a pronounced illuvial horizon. Brown Podzolic soils A zonal great soil group (1938 system of soil classification) similar to Podzols but lacking the distinct E horizon that is characteristic of the Podzol group. Brown soils A great soil group (1938 system of soil classification) of the temperate to cool, arid regions, composed of soils with a brown surface and a lightcolored transitional subsurface horizon over calcium carbonate accumulation.


Thick sandy deposits occur on the plains. Dubroeucq and Volkoff (1998) divided the landscape into geomorphic types and examined typical soil associations on each. On landscapes with low, rounded hills, they described a generally continuous mantle of Oxisols and Ultisols over saprolite.

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Gypsum may accumulate uniformly throughout sandy soils, while in finer-textured or gravelly material it may be more concentrated in masses or clusters, sometimes called snowballs. In gravelly or stony material, it also may accumulate in pendants below the rock fragments, as do carbonates. The differences lie in gypsum’s increased solubility (Carter and Inskeep 1988) and in the fact that it depresses the solubility of CaCO3 (Reheis 1987b). Gypsum also commonly accumulates as surface crusts when groundwater evaporates in shallow lakes, playas, chotts or sabkhas (Busson and Perthuisot 1977, Schwenk 1977, Watson 1979, 1988). Carbonates, however, seldom occur as surface evaporite deposits because of their lower solubility (Watson 1979). Like calcic horizons, gypsic horizons have discrete developmental stages. Silicification Accumulation of secondary silica in soils is called silicification. Silica is abundant in all soils – in silicate minerals and/or as easily weathered tephra and volcanic ash/glass. Soils that accumulate sufficient amounts of soluble silica may eventually develop a Bqm horizon – a silica hardpan or duripan (Southard et al. 1990, Soil Survey Staff 1999). Duripans, also called silcretes or siliceous duricrusts, are often firm and brittle, even when wet (Stephens 1964, Summerfield 1982, Twidale and Milnes 1983, Dixon 1994).


Episaturation is more correctly described as a perched zone of saturation, rather than a perched water table. In many parts of Europe this condition is referred to as the pseudogley model. An example of a soil with periodic episaturation is a Mollic Epiaqualf. Perched water can occur on top of soil (Bx or Bt) horizons or on inherited sedimentary layers like a clay lens in till or dense basal till (Fletcher and McDermott 1957, Gile 1958, Simonson and Boersma 1972, Palkovics et al. 1975, McDaniel and Falen 1994, McDaniel et al. 2001). Water may perch on dense C horizons, while the solum, with good structure, is more permeable and allows water to move more freely in lateral directions where the surface is sloping (Harlan and Franzmeier 1974, King and Franzmeier 1981).

Soil geography also incorporates geomorphology; one cannot fully explain soil patterns without knowledge of the evolution of the landforms and rocks of which they form the skin. Soil geography involves soil evolution; changing patterns of soils over time are a reflection of a multitude of interactions, processes and factors, replete with feedbacks, inertia and flows of energy and mass. Soil geography is manifested in soil survey (mapping) operations, which are extremely useful databases but are only as good as our understanding of the evolution of the soil pattern. This book, then, is about soil geography and all that it encompasses. Tandarich et al. (1988) used the term geopedology to refer to the interesction of the disciplines of geology, geography and soil science. We embrace that term and view it as a central component of this book.


These soils would later be buried and preserve within them a record of pedogenesis and regional geomorphic stability. The role of duration vs. intensity of pedogenesis applies to studies of magnetic susceptibility. Are high values of MS due to a longer period of pedogenesis (and hence, a longer period of surface stability) or are they due to a more intense period of pedogenesis (perhaps a warmer and wetter soil-forming interval)? For magnetic susceptibility, or any other parameter, to reflect short-term changes in paleoclimate, it helps if the pedogenic regime favors rapid development, with soils reaching a steady state with regard to climate in a few thousand years or less.

Geomorphometry is the science of quantitative land-surface analysis. It draws upon mathematical, statistical, and image-processing techniques to quantify the shape of earth's topography at various spatial scales. The focus of geomorphometry is the calculation of surface-form measures (land-surface parameters) and features (objects), which may be used to improve the mapping and modelling of landforms to assist in the evaluation of soils, vegetation, land use, natural hazards, and other information.


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Resistant minerals are often referred to as index minerals. Since they are immobile and resistant to weathering, they provide the index against which other, mobile and weatherable minerals, are compared (Table 14/5).


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A brown, trioctahedral layer silicate of the mica group with Fe2+ and Mg in the octahedral layer and Si and Al in a ratio of 3: 1 in the tetrahedral layer. Its color ranges from dark brown to green in thin section.


Mobile Field Trips videos take students to iconic locations with Michael Collier in the air and on the ground to learn about places that relate to concepts in the chapter. In Mastering, these videos are accompanied by auto-gradable assessments that will track what students have learned.

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With a few important exceptions it was found at this meeting that most man-induced disturbances of ecosystems can be viewed as large scale patterns of disturbances that have occurred, generally on a small scale, in ecosystems through evolutionary time. Man has induced dramatic large-scale changes in the environment which must be viewed at the biosphere level. Acid deposition and CO increase are two 2 examples of the consequences of man's increased utilization of fossil fuels. It is a matter of considerable concern that we cannot yet fully predict the ecological consequences of these environmental changes. Such problems must be addressed at the international level, yet substantive mechanisms to do this are not available.


Early studies named these tills after the SOIL GEOMORPHOLOGY CASE STUDIES, MODELS AND PARADIGMS Fig

This application is in support of the Energy Model of Runge (1973) (see Chapter 11). As mentioned above, pits on sites with a high water table will not benefit from the extra potential energy associated with their lower site, and may be less developed than mounds. Contributing to soil development in freely draining pits are conditions that would tend to favor more runoff from surrounding sites, such as (1) a thick mat of broadleaf litter (Oi and Oe horizons), (2) slowly permeable soils due to clayey textures or frost and (3) steep slopes upslope from the microtopography.

For example, a series of raised beach ridges, all of different ages but otherwise similar, are allowed to substitute for time and thereby provide the experimental construct for the chronosequence. Chronosequence assumptions are that (1) the soil sequence represents successive stages of one or several pedogenic processes and (2) the soils all pass through stages characterized by some preceding member of the sequence (Vreeken 1984a, Huggett 1998b). Both assumptions involve some sort of progressive pedogenic development which, although commonly observed, is not always the case. In fact, Huggett (1998b: 155) attributed the popularity and widespread applicability of chronofunctions to the fact that many researchers support the notion of a developmental view of pedogenesis. However, a progressive/ developmental viewpoint is counter to notions of regressive pedogenesis (Johnson and WatsonStegner 1987). Because most chronosequences report progressive soil development or steady-state conditions (Gile et al. 1966, Reheis 1987b, Holliday 1988), it can be assumed that the progressive pedogenic pathway in many soils is at least as strong as the regressive one (see Chapter 11). On the other hand, Hall (1999b) explained chronofunctions that did not have good age–time trends as indicative of soil regression, cryoturbation and erosion, due to changes in external climatic forcings and pedogenic pathways.


Soils in Archaeological Research

The value of obsidian hydration as an SED tool derives not only from the fact that it is numerically dateable by K–Ar, but also because (1) the rate of hydration is well known (Friedman and Long 1976) and (2) rinds appear to develop at similar rates in both shallowly buried and subaerial rocks. Obsidian hydration is especially useful in archeology, since many human artifacts are made of obsidian, and because the method can be extended back over 250 ka (Michels 1967, Meighan et al. 1968, Friedman and Trembour 1978). Most rind thickness studies use rinds on surface clasts; if subsurface clasts are used, this should be indicated. As would be expected, weathering rind data for subsurface clasts is more variable, as the weathering intensity within the soil is highly spatially variable. Buried clasts tend to weather more slowly than do surface-exposed clasts, depending upon climate and soil conditions. In dry climates or in salty soils the reverse may be true.

Of all the common soluble materials that accumulate in soils, only CaCO3 is less soluble than gypsum, meaning that the bulk of accumulated carbonate is usually located shallower in the profile than the gypsum max in freely draining desert soils; By horizons should be below Bk horizons. If gypsum-rich horizons overlie carbonaterich horizons, it is a tell-tale sign that the gypsum has accumulated via capillary rise. Where capillary flow leads to surface gypsum deposits, the crust formed is often referred to as croˆ ute de nappe. Because carbonates and gypsum often cooccur in soils, differentiating them from each other is critical to the accurate identification and naming of the horizon and to the interpretation of the genesis of the soil. Usually, secondary gypsum will not effervesce when exposed to weak HCl, while carbonates will, although the definitive test for pedogenic gypsum in soils is the identification of euhedral gypsum crystals with a hand lens (Carter and Inskeep 1988). Indeed, close inspection of pedogenic gypsum crystals within the soil fabric may be the only way to differentiate it from gypsum originally in the parent material (Amit and Yaalon 1996). In most other respects, gypsification is similar to calcification.


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Comprehensive Composite Materials Online is a major reference work [6 volumes in the print edition] covering all aspects of composites, from theory to practical applications. CCM provides a unique central reference source for scientists and technologists in the field of composites research, covering key aspects of naturally occurring and synthetic composite materials. Classes of materials covered includes polymer matrix composites, metal matrix composites, ceramic matrix composites, carbon/carbon composites, and cement and concrete composites. CCM also covers smart materials as they relate to composites, including process monitoring, embedded sensors and actuators, and damage detection.


Secondary carbonates have long been known to form as Ca2+ ions precipitate on, or thoroughly permeate, former biological substrates such as root hairs, fungi and actinomycetes (Calvet et al. 1975, Klappa 1979, Phillips and Self 1987, Vaniman et al. 1994). Like any substance, the ions often precipitate passively onto an existing surface – in this case a biological one. If that substance/substrate is a root hair, the carbonate feature produced can be variously referred to as a rhizolith, root tubule or root cast (Goudie 1996, Wright et al. 1995). Monger et al. (1991b), however, documented a more active role of soil microorganisms, suggesting that they can directly precipitate calcite.

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Design of Wind and Earthquake Resistant Reinforced Concrete Buildings explains wind and seismic design issues of RCC buildings in brief and provides design examples based on recommendations of latest IS codes essential for industrial design. Intricate issues of RCC design are discussed which are supplemented by real-life examples. Guidelines are presented for evaluating the acceptability of wind-induced motions of tall buildings. Design methodologies for structures to deform well beyond their elastic limits, which is essential under seismic excitation, have been discussed in detail. Comparative discussion including typical design examples using recent British, Euro and American codes is also included.


Ponding of water on these landscapes for extended periods of time further assists in smectite neoformation, and virtually assures complete wetting of the profile, accentuating the wet–dry seasonality of the site. In sum, microtopography variously impacts all landscapes.

Data represent dissolved organic carbon (DOC), Fe and Al contents from soil solutions exiting each horizon. After Ugolini et al. (1987).


Applying pedogenic mass balance principles is much like using R/W mineral ratios in that it assumes that certain minerals, usually zircon, rutile, anatase, tourmaline, ilmenite and monzanite are resistant to weathering and thereby provide a certain measure of chemical stability. Quartz is occasionally used in this context as well and has an advantage over the less-common heavy minerals (Sudom and St. Arnaud 1971, Guillet et al. 1975); quartz data are not as dramatically affected by sampling technique as are rare minerals like zircon and tourmaline. Souchier (1971) outlined a mass balance formula that relies on quartz as an immobile and resistant mineral.

Leaching intensity here is highly dependent on the amount of soil pore space and run-on, both of which are largely a function of surface bedrock exposures. Soils in the footslope and toeslope positions are developed in deep silts and sands that have washed down from upslope; upslope areas are rocky with thin soils.


Recent years have seen an explosion of interest in using network approaches to disentangle the relationship between biodiversity, community structure and functioning. Novel methods for model construction are being developed constantly, and modern methods allow for the inclusion of almost any type of explanatory variable that can be correlated either with biodiversity or ecosystem functioning. As a result these models have been widely used in ecology, conservation and eco-evolutionary biology. Nevertheless, there remains a considerable gap on how well these approaches are feasible to understand the mechanisms on how biodiversity constrains the provisioning of ecosystem services.

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Over 150 SmartFigure Tutorials present students with a 3- to 4-minute feature (mini lesson), most narrated and annotated by Professor Callan Bentley. Each lesson examines and explains the concepts illustrated by the figure in the text. With over 150 SmartFigure Tutorials inside the text, students have a multitude of ways to enjoy art that teaches.

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Ron Amundson, Dave Cremeens, Chris Evans, John Hunter, Don Johnson, Warren Lynn, Fritz Nelson, Jenny Olson, Paul Reich, John Tandarich, Charles Tarnocai, Pat Webber, Beth Weisenborn and Antoinette WinklerPrins provided images, graphs, charts and figures of soils and landscapes that have been reproduced within the book. Without these images, the book would have been much weaker. Bill Dollarhide, John Gagnon, Charles Gordon, Bill Johnson, Mike Risinger, Richard Schlepp, Bruce Thompson and Cleveland Watts (of the USDA–NRCS), and David Cremeens provided us with data and block diagrams from various NRCS soil surveys.


Sources: Gile et al. (1966), Bachmann and Machette (1977), Machette (1985) and Birkeland (1999). Recognition should be made, however, of the early contribution of Hawker (1927). The Bkm horizon of Stage IV perches water, allowing for carbonate deposition directly on top (Reeves 1970).

In essence, soils with high CEC values have large amount of negative charges per unit mass of soil. Determined by the amount of organic matter, the proportion of clay to sand and the mineralogy of the clay fraction. See also effective cation exchange capacity (ECEC ). cation ratio dating Used to date desert varnish on rock surfaces, it is, in theory, the ratio of soluble (Ca and K) to insoluble Ti cations in the varnish.


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C horizon The presumed parent material of a soil. Although many C horizons exhibit some alteration from their original state, the concept implies lack of alteration by surficial processes. C3 pathway The most common pathway of carbon fixation in plants. Most humid climate plants such as trees, most shrubs and herbs and many grasses use the Calvin (C3) cycle to fix carbon dioxide. C4 (Hatch -Slack) pathway An alternative carbon fixation pathway. C4 plants are mostly found among tropical grasses and some sedges and herbs growing in warm, sunny environments.

Chronosequences A chronosequence is a series of soils of known age, as originally defined within the functional– factorial model ( Jenny 1941b). In a chronosequence, time (soil age) is allowed to vary while, assumedly, all other soil-forming factors are held constant (Stevens and Walker 1970, Yaalon 1975, Huggett 1998b).


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A minimum of 300 grains are usually counted for each sample. If this is done for each horizon in a number of soils, data on R/W mineral ratios within the soil (surface) as well as between soils (surfaces) can be compared.


Encyclopedia of Geology, Second Edition presents in six volumes state-of-the-art reviews on the various aspects of geologic research, all of which have moved on considerably since the writing of the first edition. New areas of discussion include extinctions, origins of life, plate tectonics and its influence on faunal provinces, new types of mineral and hydrocarbon deposits, new methods of dating rocks, and geological processes. Users will find this to be a fundamental resource for teachers and students of geology, as well as researchers and non-geology professionals seeking up-to-date reviews of geologic research.

Litter is a source of organic acids and can promote soil development (see Chapter 12). The overthickened O horizons in pits also protect the soil from drying events and the extra moisture may facilitate weathering. Microtopography also affects soil temperature, which again impacts pedogenic processes and biotic communities that inhabit these microsites (Troedsson and Lyford 1973) (Table 13/4). Microtopography is also important to pedogenesis in dry climates (Sharma et al. 1998). Small variations in microclimate may lead to significant differences in soil moisture, vegetation and soil development in grasslands and deserts, especially with respect to pedogenic properties that can be changed readily by small amounts of water. For example, White (1964) pointed out the differences between sodium-affected soils in depressions vs mounds.


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Data from a thin saprolite (Crk horizon) seam at 47–75 cm have been omitted for clarity of presentation. Data from Boettinger and Southard (1991).


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As would be expected, the amounts of secondary carbonates in the soils also decreased from dry to subhumid climates. Rates of carbonate accumulation also appear to vary as a function of the types of rock that dominate the gravel fraction (Lattman 1973). The extent and development of secondary carbonates is greatest where carbonates and basic igneous rocks dominate, intermediate in soils with large amounts of siliceous sedimentary detritus and least where acid igneous gravels are common. Rabenhorst et al. (1991) and Rabenhorst and Wilding (1986b) presented an alternative physicochemical model of petrocalcic horizon formation, for soils underlain shallowly by limestone, in dry, western Texas (see also Blank and Tynes 1965). They envisioned that the carbonate horizons in these soils developed from in situ dissolution of limestone, followed by reprecipitation of soil carbonate, often at a lithologic discontinuity within the limestone (West et al. 1988b).


Similarly, higher amounts of Fe and Al in soil solutions leaving the E (but not the B) horizon confirms that active podzolization is occurring. Ugolini et al. (1977) used soil solution data to document the existence of two connected yet discrete pedogenic compartments in Spodosols. The upper, biopedological compartment, contains the O, A, E and upper B horizons. Ionic movement here is governed by soluble organics that acidify the soil solution and depress bicarbonate concentrations. It is here that van Breeman et al. (2000) documented evidence for intense weathering by fungal hyphae. Podzolization per se is limited to the upper compartment.

Geomorphologists also use the form or shape of a landform as a key element in estimating its age (Coates 1984). Many landforms originate with sharp edges and slope breaks, but become more rounded with time (Sharp and Birman 1963, Miller 1979, Nash 1984, Nelson and Shroba 1998). Moraines become breached by water gaps (Nelson 1954).


There are several key assumptions that are made when using this method. Firstly, that rocks are exposed to the surface with no previous inventory of nuclides from prior exposure - when in reality, cosmogenic radiation penetrates several meters below the surface, and rocks often contain at least low levels of "inherited" cosmogenic nuclides. Inherited nuclides lead to OVERESTIMATES of rocks exposure ages.

The same chronofunction is plotted in (a) and (b), but on different axes. If plotted on linear axes (a), one might (correctly) conclude that the soil is approaching a steady state. Plot (c) verifies this conclusion by showing that the percentage change with time is rapidly approaching zero. If the same regression equation is plotted on log-linear axes (b), however, one might (erroneously) conclude that the soil property is not approaching any sort of equilibrium or steady state. This figure points out how the conclusions drawn from chronofunctions can be impacted by the graphical method of presentation.


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Others place emphasis on the work of Charles Darwin (1809–1882), perhaps the world’s most underappreciated soil scientist. Regardless of who gets the credit for jump-starting this discipline, pedology is unquestionably little more than a century old! Our brief overview of the founders of soil science (below) should underscore that they were multifaceted thinkers who understood that the soil landscape was a complex system, requiring that it be studied using a geographic approach. More detailed accounts of the personalities involved in the development of the field are presented elsewhere (Kellogg 1974, Cline 1977, Tandarich and Sprecher 1994).

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Displayed in the glass case was a robin’s nest. Biogeochemical cycling includes elemental transfers among not only the soil and biota, but also the atmosphere, hydrosphere and rock below (Duchaufour 1982, Likens et al. 1998, Likens 2001). Some of the more common ions that are biocyled include the macronutrients (N, P, K, Mg, S, Ca, H, O, C, Fe) and the micronutrients (Cl, Mn, Zn, B, Cu, Si, Mo, V, Co, Na), as well as others that are more plant-specific (Al, Pb, Ni). Of these, O, C, N and S also occur in the gaseous state and are therefore readily exchanged between soil, plant and air. The most commonly biocycled ions are probably (in order) Ca, K, Mg and P; additionally, N and Mn are strongly biocycled.

Soil Taxonomy (Soil Survey Staff 1999) defines an argillic horizon as a Bt horizon that contains a defined quantity of illuvial clay. B horizons are given a t suffix to indicate illuvial clay, for the German word for clay, der Ton. Alfisols and Ultisols must, by definition, have an argillic horizon; many Inceptisols and Entisols are developing one. A minority of Aridisols, Spodosols and Andisols have Bt horizons, while many Oxisols and Vertisols probably have since lost their Bt horizons because of weathering and argilliturbation, respectively. In Aridisols, the Bt horizon usually dates back to when the climate was more humid. In Canada, Luvisolic soils have illuvial clayrich B horizons. The French use the term Sols Lessives to refer to similar soils. In Australia, soils with a clay-impoverished horizon above a clayrich horizon are called duplex and texture-contrast soils (Gunn 1967, Koppi and Williams 1980, Chittleborough 1992). Not all profiles with clay-enriched B horizons are due to lessivage or decomposition/synthesis (Chittleborough 1992). Relative clay enrichment in the B horizon can be caused by (1) sand and silt destruction (weathering) in the horizons above, (2) preferential erosion of finer materials from, or additions of coarser materials to, the upper profile and/or (3) comminution of silt and coarse clay to fine clay in the B horizon (Oertel 1968, Smeck et al. 1981).


And how long does it take to get there? If the rate of soil development slows and appears to approach an asymptote, then one can assume that the soil system is either approaching steady state or may already be there. The chronofunction can then be used to determine (1) whether a steady state is achieved, (2) what the steady-state value is, and (3) how long it takes the system to reach it. Certainly not all soils achieve steady-state conditions (Bockheim 1980b, Dorronsoro and Alonso 1994). In these cases, pedogenic theory such as deterministic uncertainty, chaos theory or soil evolution principles may help explain the nonlinear and perhaps multidimensional aspects of the soil’s development. Often, certain soil properties achieve more or less steady-state conditions, while others continue to change. Soils or soil properties that do achieve steady-state conditions are not useful as a measure of soil age for those time periods after they have reached that state (Catt 1990). Those properties that take a long time to achieve steady-state conditions are most useful for dating old soils, while rapidly adjusting properties such as organic matter content are most useful in ‘‘short” chronofunctions. Many soil properties are assumed to develop in a way that is analogous to the classic, S-shaped growth curve (Crocker and Major 1955, Yaalon 1975, Sondheim et al. 1981, Birkeland 1999).

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Thus, in many acid Spodosols the A horizon is thin or almost non-existent, and the lower O horizon boundary is sharp. Where bioturbation– humification is the dominant process bundle, the A horizon tends to be thicker, the rate of humification is increased and the O–A boundary is blurred. In most soils, the rates of littering and humification eventually achieve a steady state. Warm, moist climates tend to have thinner O horizons because humification is rapid, despite the fact that litter production is generally high there.

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In theory, the R/W mineral ratio increases as soils develop and weather (Dorronsoro and Alonso 1994). In well-developed soils, these ratios also decrease with depth, indicating the degree to which the parent material has been altered by weathering (Brophy 1959).


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R/W mineral ratios have a number of applications in pedology and paleopedology. In addition to their standard use in chronosequences (Bockheim et al. 1996), they are particularly useful in discerning the weathered nature of buried soils, in which standard pedogenic tests of development, especially those associated with chemistry, do not work (Brophy 1959). A consideration, and sometimes a problem, associated with this analysis centers on the relative paucity of some types of resistant minerals (Chittleborough et al.

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In humid and subhumid areas, where C3 and C4 plants dominate, soil respiration is high and thus little atmospheric CO2 mixes with that of the soil, meaning that the isotopic composition of soil carbonate (if any actually forms) is more reflective of the flora (Cerling 1984). In arid climates, however, where soil respiration rates are low, the 13 C values of soil carbonate may be related to the density of vegetation and therefore, rates of soil respiration (Amundson et al. 1988, Wang et al. 1996b). Along these lines, Cerling et al. (1989) pointed out that the relationship between the isotopic composition of flora and carbonates is less useful in desert soils (300 days (cumulative) during the period when not irrigated.

Climate is almost certain to have changed, and often vegetation evolves in conjunction with climate and soils. Topography also evolves and changes over time, as attested to by innumerable geomorphologic studies. Most chronofunctions have a limited range of time within they can be applied. Pedogenic thresholds and accessions create problems, as they dramatically change the rate and direction of pedogenesis. Huggett (1998b) also pointed out that not all pedogenic events are recorded in the soil’s morphology or chemistry, rendering the chronosequence only a partial record of the past. All geomorphic surfaces are spatially variable, prompting questions as to which soil on a surface is most representative (Sondheim and Standish 1983, Harrison et al. 1990, Vidic 1998, Eppes and Harrison 1999). Barrett and Schaetzl (1993) sampled a number of soils on each surface and only used data from the modal profile in their chronofunction. Certainly, chaos and deterministic uncertainty also contribute to the unpredictability of chronosequences; soil development may not be unidirectional, but multidirectional, displaying evolutionary divergence (Huggett 1998b) (see Chapter 11).